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Melde Dich bei uns! Section 5. Collecting and Analyzing Data. The Tool Box needs your help. Your contribution can help change lives.
Sixteen training modules. What do we mean by collecting data? What do we mean by analyzing data? Why should you collect and analyze data for your evaluation?
When and by whom should data be collected and analyzed? How do you collect and analyze data? Essentially, collecting data means putting your design for collecting information into operation.
How you do this will depend on your research design and your evaluation questions. You might group observations by the dependent variable indicator of success they relate to, by individuals or groups of participants, by time, by activity, etc.
You might also want to group observations in several different ways, so that you can study interactions among different variables.
There are two kinds of variables in research. An independent variable the intervention is a condition implemented by the researcher or community to see if it will create change and improvement.
This could be a program, method, system, or other action. A dependent variable is what may change as a result of the independent variable or intervention.
A dependent variable could be a behavior, outcome, or other condition. Analyzing information involves examining it in ways that reveal the relationships, patterns, trends, etc.
It may mean comparing your information to that from other groups a control or comparison group, statewide figures, etc.
Quantitative data refer to the information that is collected as, or can be translated into, numbers, which can then be displayed and analyzed mathematically.
Qualitative data are collected as descriptions, anecdotes, opinions, quotes, interpretations, etc. As you might expect, quantitative and qualitative information needs to be analyzed differently.
Quantitative data are typically collected directly as numbers. Some examples include: The frequency rate, duration of specific behaviors or conditions Test scores e.
Survey results e. Numbers or percentages of people with certain characteristics in a population diagnosed with diabetes, unemployed, Spanish-speaking, under age 14, grade of school completed, etc.
Data can also be collected in forms other than numbers, and turned into quantitative data for analysis. Researchers can count the number of times an event is documented in interviews or records, for instance, or assign numbers to the levels of intensity of an observed event or behavior.
For instance, community initiatives often want to document the amount and intensity of environmental changes they bring about — the new programs and policies that result from their efforts.
Quantitative data is usually subjected to statistical procedures such as calculating the mean or average number of times an event or behavior occurs per day, month, year.
Various kinds of quantitative analysis can indicate changes in a dependent variable related to — frequency, duration, timing when particular things happen , intensity, level, etc.
They can allow you to compare those changes to one another, to changes in another variable, or to changes in another population.
They might be able to tell you, at a particular degree of reliability, whether those changes are likely to have been caused by your intervention or program, or by another factor, known or unknown.
And they can identify relationships among different variables, which may or may not mean that one causes another.
A number may tell you how well a student did on a test; the look on her face after seeing her grade, however, may tell you even more about the effect of that result on her.
And that interpretation may be far more valuable in helping that student succeed than knowing her grade or numerical score on the test.
Qualitative data can sometimes be changed into numbers, usually by counting the number of times specific things occur in the course of observations or interviews, or by assigning numbers or ratings to dimensions e.
The challenges of translating qualitative into quantitative data have to do with the human factor. Furthermore, the numbers say nothing about why people reported the way they did.
One may dislike the program because of the content, the facilitator, the time of day, etc. Where one person might see a change in program he considers important another may omit it due to perceived unimportance.
It is often helpful to collect both quantitative and qualitative information. Quantitative analysis is considered to be objective — without any human bias attached to it — because it depends on the comparison of numbers according to mathematical computations.
Be aware, however, that quantitative analysis is influenced by a number of subjective factors as well. Part of the answer here is that not every organization — particularly small community-based or non-governmental ones — will necessarily have extensive resources to conduct a formal evaluation.
They may have to be content with less formal evaluations, which can still be extremely helpful in providing direction for a program or intervention.
An informal evaluation will involve some data gathering and analysis. This data collection and sensemaking is critical to an initiative and its future success, and has a number of advantages.
The data can show whether there was any significant change in the dependent variable s you hoped to influence.
Collecting and analyzing data helps you see whether your intervention brought about the desired results. The level of significance of a statistical result is the level of confidence you can have in the answer you get.
Thus, if data analysis finds that the independent variable the intervention influenced the dependent variable at the. They can uncover factors that may be associated with changes in the dependent variable s.
Data analyses may help discover unexpected influences; for instance, that the effort was twice as large for those participants who also were a part of a support group.
This can be used to identify key aspects of implementation. They can show connections between or among various factors that may have an effect on the results of your evaluation.
Certain dependent variables may change when others do. These changes may be similar — i. Or the opposite may be observed — i.
The effect of cultural issues, how well methods are used, the appropriateness of your approach for the population — these as well as other factors that influence success can be highlighted by careful data collection and analysis.
Stakeholders, such as funders and community boards, want to know their investments are well spent. Showing evidence of intermediate outcomes e.
Being a good trustee or steward of community investment includes regular review of data regarding progress and improvement. Ideally, you should collect data for a period of time before you start your program or intervention in order to determine if there are any trends in the data before the onset of the intervention.
Which of these approaches you take depends on your research purposes. Both approaches are legitimate, but ongoing data collection and review can particularly lead to improvements in your work.
You can conduct a less formal evaluation. Your results may not be as sophisticated as if you subjected them to rigorous statistical procedures, but they can still tell you a lot about your program.
Just the numbers — the number of dropouts and when most dropped out , for instance, or the characteristics of the people you serve — can give you important and usable information.
You can try to learn enough about statistics and statistical software to conduct a formal evaluation yourself. Take a course, for example.
You can collect the data and then send it off to someone — a university program, a friendly statistician or researcher, or someone you hire — to process it for you.
You can collect and rely largely on qualitative data. Whether this is an option depends to a large extent on what your program is about.
If possible, use a randomized or closely matched control group for comparison. If your control is properly structured, you can draw some fairly reliable conclusions simply by comparing its results to those of your intervention group.
Who should actually collect and analyze data also depends on the form of your evaluation. Analysis also could be accomplished by a participatory process.
Another way analysis can be accomplished is by professionals or other trained individuals, depending upon the nature of the data to be analyzed, the methods of analysis, and the level of sophistication aimed at in the conclusions.
Implement your measurement system. We've previously discussed designing an observational system to gather information.
Clearly define and describe what measurements or observations are needed. Select and train observers. Particularly if this is part of a participatory process, observers need training to know what to record; to recognize key behaviors, events, and conditions; and to reach an acceptable level of inter-rater reliability agreement among observers.
Conduct observations at the appropriate times for the appropriate period of time. This may include reviewing archival material; conducting interviews, surveys, or focus groups; engaging in direct observation; etc.
Record data in the agreed-upon ways. These may include pencil and paper, computer using a laptop or handheld device in the field, entering numbers into a program, etc.
Enter any necessary data into the computer. This may mean simply typing comments, descriptions, etc.
Transcribe any audio- or videotapes. This makes them easier to work with and copy, and allows the opportunity to clarify any hard-to-understand passages of speech.
Score any tests and record the scores appropriately. Sort your information in ways appropriate to your interest. This may include sorting by category of observation, by event, by place, by individual, by group, by the time of observation, or by a combination or some other standard.
When possible, necessary, and appropriate, transform qualitative into quantitative data. This might involve, for example, counting the number of times specific issues were mentioned in interviews, or how often certain behaviors were observed.
Conduct data graphing, visual inspection, statistical analysis, or other operations on the data as appropriate.
There are other excellent possibilities for analysis besides statistical procedures, however. A few include: Simple counting, graphing and visual inspection of frequency or rates of behavior, events, etc.
Using visual inspection of patterns over time to identify discontinuities marked increases, decreases in the measures over time sessions, weeks, months.
What was the average blood pressure, for instance, of people who exercised 30 minutes a day at least five days a week, as opposed to that of people who exercised two days a week or less?
Using qualitative interviews, conversations, and participant observation to observe and track changes in the people or situation.
Finding patterns in qualitative data. Comparing actual results to previously determined goals or benchmarks. One measure of success might be meeting a goal for planning or program implementation, for example.
Take note of any significant or interesting results. They may or may not be socially significant i.
There are a number of different kinds of results you might be looking for. Differences within people or groups. When the effects are seen when and only when the intervention is introduced — and if the intervention is staggered delayed across people or groups — this increases our confidence that the intervention, and not something else, is producing the observed effects.
Differences between or among two or more groups. Results that show statistically significant changes. With or without a control or comparison group, many statistical procedures can tell you whether changes in dependent variables are truly significant or not likely due to chance.
Correlation means that there are connections between or among two or more variables. Correlations can sometimes point to important relationships you might not have predicted.
In some cases, they can highlight potential causes of an issue or condition, and thus pave the way for future interventions.
Among American teenagers, for instance, there is probably a fairly high correlation between an increase in body size and an understanding of algebra.
This is not because one causes the other, but rather the result of the fact that American schools tend to begin teaching algebra in the seventh, eighth, or ninth grades, a time when many , , and year-olds are naturally experiencing a growth spurt.
On the other hand, correlations can reveal important connections. A very high correlation between, for instance, the use of a particular medication and the onset of depression might lead to the withdrawal of that medication, or at least a study of its side effects, and increased awareness and caution among doctors who prescribe it.
A very high correlation between gang membership and having a parent with a substance abuse problem may not reveal a direct cause-and-effect relationship, but may tell you something important about who is more at risk for substance abuse.
In both quantitative and qualitative information, patterns often emerge: certain health conditions seem to cluster in particular geographical areas; people from a particular group behave in similar ways; etc.
Obvious important findings. Whether as a result of statistical analysis, or of examination of your data and application of logic, some findings may stand out.
Not all important findings will necessarily tell you whether your program worked, or what is the most effective method.
It might be obvious from your data collection, for instance, that, while violence or roadway injuries may not be seen as a problem citywide, they are much higher in one or more particular areas, or that the rates of diabetes are markedly higher for particular groups or those living in areas with greater disparities of income.
Probably the most common question that evaluation research is directed toward is whether the program being evaluated works or makes a difference.
Your early childhood education program, for instance, greatly increased development outcomes for children in the community, and also contributed to an increase in the percentage of children succeeding in school.
Your program had no effect. Your program produced no significant results on the dependent variable, whether alone or compared to other groups.
This would mean no change as a result of your program or intervention. Your program had a negative effect. For instance, intimate partner violence increased or at least appeared to as a result of your intervention.
It is relatively common for reported events, such as violence or injury, to increase when the intervention results in improved surveillance and ease of reporting.
Your program had the effects you hoped for and other effects as well. These effects might be positive. Your youth violence prevention program, for instance, might have resulted in greatly reduced violence among teens, and might also have resulted in significantly improved academic performance for the kids involved.
These effects might be neutral. The same youth violence prevention program might somehow result in youth watching TV more often after school.
These effects might be negative. These effects are usually called unintended consequences.
Youth violence might decrease significantly, but the incidence of teen pregnancies or alcohol consumption among youth in the program might increase significantly at the same time.
These effects might be multiple , or mixed. Your program had no effect or a negative effect and other effects as well.
As with programs with positive effects, these might be positive, neutral, or negative; single or multiple; or consistent or mixed.
If your analysis shows that your program is ineffective or negative, however — or, for that matter, if a positive analysis leaves you wondering how to make your successful efforts still more successful — interpretation becomes more complex.
Are you using an absolutely wrong approach? Are you using an approach that could be effective, but is poorly implement?
Are there barriers to success — of culture, experience, personal characteristics, systematic discrimination — present in the population from which participants are drawn?
Are there particular components or elements you can change to make your program more effective, or should you start again from scratch?
What should you address to make a good program better? Careful and insightful interpretation of your data may allow you to answer questions like these.
You may be able to use correlations, for instance, to generate hypotheses about your results. If positive or negative changes in particular variables are consistently associated with positive or negative changes in other variables, the two may be connected.
Such a connection can point the way toward a factor e. The observation that participants are continually suffering from a variety of health problems may be traced, through qualitative data, to nutrition problems due either to poverty or ignorance or to lack of access to health services, or to cultural restrictions some Muslim women may be unwilling — or unable because of family prohibition — to accept care and treatment from male doctors, for example.
This may not give you convincing information but it will almost undoubtedly give you some ideas to follow up on, and some indications of connections and avenues you might not yet have considered.
It will also show you some additional results — people reacting differently than before to the program, for example.
Those are often matters for logical analysis, or critical thinking. You have to become a cultural detective to understand your initiative, and, in some ways, every evaluation is an anthropological study.
Collecting quantitative data — information expressed in numbers — and subjecting it to a visual inspection or formal statistical analysis can tell you whether your work is having the desired effect, and may be able to tell you why or why not as well.
It can also highlight connections correlations among variables, and call attention to factors you may not have considered. Within their guide, they answer various questions such as: What type of analysis do I need?
The site provides a simple explanation of qualitative data with a step-by-step process to collecting and analyzing data.
Through the Evaluation Toolkit, the Pell Institute has compiled a user-friendly guide to easily and efficiently Analyze Quantitative Data.
In addition to explaining the basis of quantitative analysis, the site also provides information on data tabulation, descriptives, disaggregating data, and moderate and advanced analytical methods.
Charts and Graphs to Communicate Research Findings , from the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center MSKTC , will provide guidance on which chart types are best suited for which types of data and for which purposes, shows examples of preferred practices and practical tips for each chart type, and provides cautions and examples of misuse and poor use of each chart type and how to make corrections.
Collecting and Analyzing Evaluation Data , 2 nd edition, provided by the National Library of Medicine, provides information on collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data.
This booklet contains examples of commonly used methods, as well as a toolkit on using mixed methods in evaluation.
Compiled for the Adolescent and School Health sector of the CDC, Data Collection and Analysis Methods is an extensive list of articles pertaining to the collection of various forms of data including questionnaires, focus groups, observation, document analysis, and interviews.
Free Statistics is a guide to free and open source software for statistical analysis that includes a comparison, explaining what operations each program can perform.
Provided by the U. An extensive list of both for collecting and analyzing data and on computerized disease registries is available.
It combines indicators in three fundamental areas - health, knowledge, and standard of living - into a single number that falls on a scale from 0 to 10, and is presented on an easy-to-navigate interactive map of the United States.
Research Methods Knowledge Base is a comprehensive web-based textbook that provides useful, comprehensive, relatively simple explanations of how statistics work and how and when specific statistical operations are used and help to interpret data.
Bazeley, P. Qualitative data analysis: Practical strategies. Brown, M. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. An essay must state the objective and purpose of the topic which should be covered in the introduction.
One should always write the essay in their own words and must reflect their thoughts as they feel on the subject.
Be honest to the topic, research the topic well and express in your own words how you see the topic and feel about it. Remember to end the essay with a pledge to your teacher in becoming a model student and citizen as per the teachings and expectations of the teacher.
The target shrinks to a height of 1 inch and is imprisoned inside a gemstone or similar object.
Light can pass through the gemstone normally allowing the target to see out and other creatures to see in , but nothing else can pass through, even by means of teleportation or planar travel.
The special component for this version of the spell is a large, transparent gemstone, such as a corundum, diamond, or ruby.
The special component for this version of the spell consists of rare soporiic herbs. Ending the Spell.
During the casting of the spell, in any of. The condition can be as speciic or as elaborate as you choose, but the DM must agree that the condition is reasonable and has a likelihood of coming to pass.
A spell can end the spell only if it is cast as a 9th-level spell, targeting either the prison or the special component used to create it.
You can use a particular special component to create only one prison at a time. If you cast the spell again using the same component, the target of the irst casting is immediately freed from its binding.
Make a melee spell attack against a creature you can reach. On a hit, the target takes 3d10 necrotic damage.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 2nd level or higher, the damage increases by 1d10 for each slot level above 1st. The spell ends for a target that attacks or casts a spell.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 3rd level or higher, you can target one additional creature for each slot level above 2nd.
Choose an object that you can see within range. The object can be a door, a box, a chest, a set of manacles, a padlock, or another object that contains a mundane or magical means that prevents access.
A target that is held shut by a mundane lock or that is stuck or barred becomes unlocked, unstuck, or unbarred.
If the object has multiple locks, only one of them is unlocked. If you choose a target that is held shut with , that spell is suppressed for 10 minutes, during which time the target can be opened and shut normally.
When you cast the spell, a loud knock, audible from as far away as feet, emanates from the target object. You touch a creature and can end either one disease or one condition alicting it.
The condition can be blinded, deafened, paralyzed, or poisoned. The spell can levitate a target that weighs up to pounds.
An unwilling creature that succeeds on a Constitution saving throw is unafected. The target can move only by pushing or pulling against a ixed object or surface within reach such as a wall or a ceiling , which allows it to move as if it were climbing.
If you are the target, you can move up or down as part of your move. When the spell ends, the target loats gently to the ground if it is still aloft.
You touch one object that is no larger than 10 feet in any dimension. Until the spell ends, the object sheds bright light in a foot radius and dim light for an additional 20 feet.
The light can be colored as you like. Completely covering the object with something opaque blocks the light.
The spell ends if you cast it again or dismiss it as an action. If you target an object held or worn by a hostile creature, that creature must succeed on a Dexterity saving throw to avoid the spell.
A stroke of lightning forming a line feet long and 5 feet wide blasts out from you in a direction you choose.
Each creature in the line must make a Dexterity saving throw. A creature takes 8d6 lightning damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.
If the creature is moving, you know the direction of its movement. The spell ends if the target dons armor or if you dismiss the spell as an action.
A spectral, loating hand appears at a point you choose within range. The hand lasts for the duration or until you dismiss it as an action.
The hand vanishes if it is ever more than 30 feet away from you or if you cast this spell again. You can use your action to control the hand.
You can use the hand to manipulate an object, open an unlocked door or container, stow or retrieve an item from an open container, or pour the contents out of a vial.
You can move the hand up to 30 feet each time you use it. You create three glowing darts of magical force.
Each dart hits a creature of your choice that you can see within range. The darts all strike simultaneously, and you can direct them to hit one creature or several.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 2nd level or higher, the spell creates one more dart for each slot level above 1st.
The image appears at a spot that you can see within range and lasts for the duration. It seems completely real, including sounds, smells, and temperature appropriate to the thing depicted.
As long as you are within range of the illusion, you can use your action to cause the image to move to any other spot within range.
As the image changes location, you can alter its appearance so that its movements appear natural for the image.
For example, if you create an image of a creature and move it, you can alter the image so that it appears to be walking.
Similarly, you can cause the illusion to make diferent sounds at diferent times, even making it carry on a conversation, for example.
Physical interaction with the. A creature that uses its action to examine the image can determine that it is an illusion with a successful Intelligence Investigation check against your spell save DC.
If a creature discerns the illusion for what it is, the creature can see through the image, and its other sensory qualities become faint to the creature.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 6th level or higher, the spell lasts until dispelled, without requiring your concentration.
A wave of healing energy washes out from a point of your choice within range. Choose up to six creatures in a foot-radius sphere centered on that point.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 6th level or higher, the healing increases by 1d8 for each slot level above 5th. A lood of healing energy lows from you into injured creatures around you.
You restore up to hit points, divided as you choose among any number of creatures that you can see within range. Creatures healed by this spell are also cured of all diseases and any efect making them blinded or deafened.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 4th level or higher, the healing increases by 1d4 for each slot level above 3rd.
You suggest a course of activity limited to a sentence or two and magically inluence up to twelve creatures of your choice that you can see within range and that can hear and understand you.
The suggestion must be worded in such a manner as to make the course of action sound reasonable.
Asking the creature to stab itself, throw itself onto a spear, immolate itself, or do some other obviously harmful act automatically negates the efect of the spell.
Each target must make a Wisdom saving throw. On a failed save, it pursues the course of action you described to the best of its ability. The suggested course of action can continue for the entire duration.
If the suggested activity can be completed in a shorter time, the spell ends when the subject inishes what it was asked to do.
You can also specify conditions that will trigger a special activity during the duration. For example, you might suggest that a group of soldiers give all their money to the irst beggar they meet.
If you or any of your companions damage a creature afected by this spell, the spell ends for that creature.
When you cast this spell using a 7th-level spell slot, the duration is 10 days. When you use an 8th-level spell slot, the duration is 30 days.
When you use a 9th-level spell slot, the duration is a year and a day. The target remains there for the duration or until it escapes the maze.
The target can use its action to attempt to escape. When it does so, it makes a DC 20 Intelligence check. If it succeeds, it escapes, and the spell ends a minotaur or goristro demon automatically succeeds.
When the spell ends, the target reappears in the space it left or, if that space is occupied, in the nearest unoccupied space.
Blazing orbs of ire plummet to the ground at four diferent points you can see within range. Each creature in a foot-radius sphere centered on each point you choose must make a Dexterity saving throw.
The sphere spreads around corners. A creature takes 20d6 ire damage and 20d6 bludgeoning damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one.
A creature in the area of more than one iery burst is afected only once. You create a sound or an image of an object within range that lasts for the duration.
The illusion also ends if you dismiss it as an action or cast this spell again. If you create a sound, its volume can range from a whisper to a scream.
The sound continues unabated throughout the duration, or you can make discrete sounds at diferent times before the spell ends. Physical interaction with the image reveals it to be an illusion, because things can pass through it.
If a creature uses its action to examine the sound or image, the creature can determine that it is an illusion with a successful Intelligence Investigation check against your spell save DC.
If a creature discerns the illusion for what it is, the illusion becomes. Briely surrounded by silvery mist, you teleport up to 30 feet to an unoccupied space that you can see.
It lasts for the duration. When the sword appears, you make a melee spell attack against a target of your choice within 5 feet of the sword.
On a hit, the target takes 3d10 force damage. Until the spell ends, you can use a bonus action on each of your turns to move the sword up to 20 feet to a spot you can see and repeat this attack against the same target or a diferent one.
The target begins a comic dance in place: shuling, tapping its feet, and capering for the duration.
A dancing creature must use all its movement to dance without leaving its space and has disadvantage on Dexterity saving throws and attack rolls.
While the target is afected by this spell, other creatures have advantage on attack rolls against it. As an action, a dancing creature makes a Wisdom saving throw to regain control of itself.
On a successful save, the spell ends. A passage appears at a point of your choice that you can see on a wooden, plaster, or stone surface such as a wall, a ceiling, or a loor within range, and lasts for the duration.
The passage creates no instability in a structure surrounding it. When the opening disappears, any creatures or objects still in the passage created by the spell are safely ejected to an unoccupied space nearest to the surface on which you cast the spell.
You extend your hand toward a creature you can see within range and project a puf of noxious gas from your palm. The creature must succeed on a Constitution saving throw or take 1d12 poison damage.
You utter a word of power that can compel one creature you can see within range to die instantly.
If the creature you choose has hit points or fewer, it dies. Otherwise, the spell has no efect. You speak a word of power that can overwhelm the mind of one creature you can see within range, leaving it dumbfounded.
If the target has hit points or fewer, it is stunned. The stunned target must make a Constitution saving throw at the end of each of its turns.
On a successful save, this stunning efect ends. When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 3rd level or higher, the healing increases by 1d8 for each slot level above 2nd.
This spell is a minor magical trick that novice spellcasters use for practice. You create one of the following magical efects within range: You create an instantaneous, harmless sensory efect, such as a shower of sparks, a puf of wind, faint musi- cal notes, or an odd odor.
You instantaneously light or snuf out a candle, a torch, or a small campire. You instantaneously clean or soil an object no larger than 1 cubic foot.
You chill, warm, or lavor up to 1 cubic foot of nonliv- ing material for 1 hour. You make a color, a small mark, or a symbol appear on an object or a surface for 1 hour.
You create a nonmagical trinket or an illusory image that can it in your hand and that lasts until the end of your next turn. If you cast this spell multiple times, you can have up to three of its non-instantaneous efects active at a time, and you can dismiss such an efect as an action.
You return a dead creature you touch to life, provided that it has been dead no longer than 10 days. This spell also neutralizes any poisons and cures nonmagical diseases that afected the creature at the time it died.
Coming back from the dead is an ordeal. The target takes a? Every time the target inishes a long rest, the penalty is reduced by 1 until it disappears.
A frigid beam of blue-white light streaks toward a creature within range. On a hit, it takes 1d8 cold damage, and its speed is reduced by 10 feet until the start of your next turn.
You touch a creature and stimulate its natural healing ability. For the duration of the spell, the target regains 1 hit point at the start of each of its turns 10 hit points each minute.
If you have the severed part and hold it to the stump, the spell instantaneously causes the limb to knit to the stump. At your touch, all curses afecting one creature or object end.
Once before the spell ends, the target can roll a d4 and add the number rolled to one saving throw of its choice.
It can roll the die before or after making the saving throw. If its soul is free and willing, the target returns to life with all its hit points.
This spell neutralizes any poisons and cures normal diseases alicting the creature when it died.
This spell closes all mortal wounds and restores any missing body parts. Casting this spell to restore life to a creature that has been dead for one year or longer taxes you greatly.
You touch a creature that has died within the last minute. That creature returns to life with 1 hit point. Flame-like radiance descends on a creature that you can see within range.
The target must succeed on a Dexterity saving throw or take 1d8 radiant damage. The target gains no beneit from cover for this saving throw.
You ward a creature within range against attack. Until the spell ends, any creature who targets the warded creature with an attack or a harmful spell must irst make a Wisdom saving throw.
On a failed save, the creature must choose a new target or lose the attack or spell. If the warded creature makes an attack or casts a spell that afects an enemy creature, this spell ends.
A sudden loud ringing noise, painfully intense, erupts from a point of your choice within range. Each creature in a foot-radius sphere centered on that point must make a Constitution saving throw.
A creature takes 3d8 thunder damage on a failed save, or half as much damage on a successful one. A creature made of inorganic material such as stone, crystal, or metal has disadvantage on this saving throw.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 3rd level or higher, the damage increases by 1d8 for each slot level above 2nd. Lightning springs from your hand to deliver a shock to a creature you try to touch.
Make a melee spell attack against the target. You have advantage on the attack roll if the target is wearing armor made of metal.
Any creature or object entirely inside the sphere is immune to thunder damage, and creatures are deafened while entirely inside it. Casting a spell that includes a verbal component is impossible there.
The image appears at a spot within range and lasts for the duration. The image is purely visual.
You can use your action to cause the image to move to any spot within range. If a creature discerns the illusion for what it is, the creature can see through the image.
This spell sends creatures into a magical slumber. Roll 5d8. Creatures within 20 feet of a point you choose within range are afected in ascending order of their current hit points ignoring unconscious creatures.
Starting with the creature that has the lowest current hit points, each creature afected by this spell falls unconscious until the spell ends, the sleeper takes damage, or someone uses an action to shake or slap the sleeper awake.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 2nd level or higher, roll an additional 2d8 for each slot level above 1st. You touch a living creature that has 0 hit points.
The creature becomes stable. You grant the semblance of life and intelligence to a corpse of your choice within range, allowing it to answer the questions you pose.
The spell fails if the corpse was the target of this spell within the last 10 days. Until the spell ends, you can ask the corpse up to ive questions.
The corpse knows only what it knew in life, including the languages it knew. Answers are usually brief, cryptic, or repetitive, and the corpse is under no compulsion to ofer a truthful answer if you are hostile to it or it recognizes you as an enemy.
The target also gains a climbing speed equal to its walking speed. They lit around you to a distance of 15 feet for the duration.
If you are good or neutral, their spectral form appears angelic or fey your choice. If you are evil, they appear iendish. When you cast this spell, you can designate any number of creatures you can see to be unafected by it.
On a failed save, the creature takes 3d8 radiant damage if you are good or neutral or 3d8 necrotic damage if you are evil. On a successful save, the creature takes half as.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 4th level or higher, the damage increases by 1d8 for each slot level above 3rd. Spiritual Weapon 2nd-level evocation Casting Time: 1 bonus action Range: 60 feet Components: V, S Duration: 1 minute You create a loating, spectral weapon within range that lasts for the duration or until you cast this spell again.
When you cast the spell, you can make a melee spell attack against a creature within 5 feet of the weapon. As a bonus action on your turn, you can move the weapon up to 20 feet and repeat the attack against a creature within 5 feet of it.
The weapon can take whatever form you choose. Clerics of deities who are associated with a particular weapon as St. When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 3rd level or higher, the damage increases by.
Stoneskin 4th-level abjuration Casting Time: 1 action Range: Touch Components: V, S, M diamond dust worth gp, which the spell consumes Duration: Concentration up to 1 hour This spell turns the lesh of a willing creature you touch as hard as stone.
Until the spell ends, the target has resistance to nonmagical bludgeoning, piercing, and slashing damage.
Asking the creature to stab itself, throw itself onto a spear, immolate itself, or do some other obviously harmful act ends the.
The target must make a Wisdom saving throw. For example, you might suggest that a knight give her warhorse to the irst beggar she meets.
If you or any of your companions damage the target, the spell ends. Sunburst 8th-level evocation Casting Time: 1 action Range: feet Components: V, S, M ire and a piece of sunstone Duration: Instantaneous Brilliant sunlight lashes in a foot radius centered on a point you choose within range.
Each creature in that light must make a Constitution saving throw. On a failed save, a creature takes 12d6 radiant damage and is blinded for 1.
Undead and oozes have disadvantage on this saving throw. A creature blinded by this spell makes another Constitution saving throw at the end of each of its turns.
On a successful save, it is no longer blinded. This spell dispels any darkness in its area that was created by a spell.
Teleport 7th-level conjuration Casting Time: 1 action Range: 10 feet Components: V Duration: Instantaneous This spell instantly transports you and up to eight willing creatures of your choice that you can see within range, or a single object that you can see within range, to a destination you select.
The destination you choose must be known to you, and it must be on the same plane of existence as you.
Your familiarity with the destination determines whether you arrive there successfully. The DM rolls d and consults the table. On Target.
You and your group or the target object appear where you want to. You and your group or the target object appear a random distance away from the destination in a random direction.
Distance of target is 1d10? For example, if you tried to travel miles, landed of target, and rolled a 5 and 3 on the two d10s, then you would be of target by 15 percent, or 18 miles.
The DM determines the direction of target randomly by rolling a d8 and designating 1 as north, 2 as northeast, 3 as east, and so on around the points of the compass.
If you were teleporting to a coastal city and wound up 18 miles out at sea, you could be in trouble.
Similar Area. Generally, you appear in the closest similar place, but since the. Each teleporting creature or the target object takes 3d10 force damage, and the DM rerolls on the table to see where you wind up multiple mishaps can occur, dealing damage each time.
You create a loating, spectral weapon within range that lasts for the duration or until you cast this spell again. When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 3rd level or higher, the damage increases by 1d8 for every two slot levels above the 2nd.
Asking the creature to stab itself, throw itself onto a spear, immolate itself, or do some other obviously harmful act ends the spell.
Brilliant sunlight lashes in a foot radius centered on a point you choose within range. On a failed save, a creature takes 12d6 radiant damage and is blinded for 1 minute.
This spell instantly transports you and up to eight willing creatures of your choice that you can see within range, or a single object that you can see within range, to a destination you select.
Of Target. If you are heading for your home laboratory, for example, you might wind. Generally, you appear in the closest similar place, but since the spell has no range limit, you could conceivably wind up anywhere on the plane.
Each teleporting creature or the target object takes. You manifest a minor wonder, a sign of supernatural power, within range.
You create one of the following magical efects within range: Your voice booms up to three times as loud as normal for 1 minute. You cause lames to licker, brighten, dim, or change color for 1 minute.
You cause harmless tremors in the ground for 1 minute. You create an instantaneous sound that originates from a point of your choice within range, such as a rumble of thunder, the cry of a raven, or omi- nous whispers.
You instantaneously cause an unlocked door or win- dow to ly open or slam shut. You alter the appearance of your eyes for 1 minute.
If you cast this spell multiple times, you can have up to three of its 1-minute efects active at a time, and you can dismiss such an efect as an action.
A wave of thunderous force sweeps out from you. Each creature in a foot cube originating from you must make a Constitution saving throw.
On a failed save, a creature takes 2d8 thunder damage and is pushed 10 feet away from you. When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 2nd level or higher, the damage increases by 1d8 for each slot level above 1st.
You briely stop the low of time for everyone but yourself. This spell ends if one of the actions you use during this period, or any efects that you create during this period, afects a creature other than you or an object being worn or carried by someone other than you.
In addition, the spell ends if you move to a place more than 1, feet from the location where you cast it.
You touch a creature that has been dead for no longer than years and that died for any reason except old age.
This spell closes all wounds, neutralizes any poison, cures all diseases, and lifts any curses afecting the creature when it died. The spell replaces damaged or missing organs and limbs.
The creature then appears in an unoccupied space you choose within 10 feet of you. This spell gives the willing creature you touch the ability to see things as they actually are.
For the duration, the creature has truesight, notices secret doors hidden by magic, and can see into the Ethereal Plane, all out to a range of feet.
You can make the wall up to 60 feet long, 20 feet high, and 1 foot thick, or a ringed wall up to 20 feet in diameter, 20 feet high, and 1 foot thick.
The wall is opaque and lasts for the duration. When the wall appears, each creature within its area must make a Dexterity saving throw.
On a failed save, a creature takes 5d8 ire damage, or half as much damage on a successful save. One side of the wall, selected by you when you cast this spell, deals 5d8 ire damage to each creature that ends its turn within 10 feet of that side or inside the wall.
A creature takes the same damage when it enters the wall for the irst time on a turn or ends its turn there. The other side of the wall deals no damage.
When you cast this spell using a spell slot of 5th level or higher, the damage increases by 1d8 for each slot level above 4th.
The wall is 6 inches thick and is composed of ten foot-byfoot panels. Each panel must be contiguous with at least one other panel.
Alternatively, you can create foot-byfoot panels that are only 3 inches thick. If a creature would be surrounded on all sides by the wall or the wall and another solid surface , that creature can make a Dexterity saving throw.
On a success, it can use its reaction to move up to its speed so that it is no longer enclosed by the wall. It must, however, merge with and be solidly supported by existing stone.
Thus, you can use this spell to bridge a chasm or create a ramp. If you create a span. You can crudely shape the wall to create crenellations, battlements, and so on.
The wall is an object made of stone that can be damaged and thus breached. Each panel has AC 15 and 30 hit points per inch of thickness.
Otherwise, the wall disappears when the spell ends. This spell wards a willing creature you touch and creates a mystic connection between you and the target until the spell ends.
Also, each time it takes damage, you take the same amount of damage. The spell ends if you drop to 0 hit points or if you and the target become separated by more than 60 feet.
It also ends if the spell is cast again on either of the connected creatures. You can also dismiss the spell as an action. The webs ill a foot cube from that point for the duration.
The webs are diicult terrain and lightly obscure their area. Webs layered over a lat surface have a depth of 5 feet.
Each creature that starts its turn in the webs or that enters them during its turn must make a Dexterity saving throw.
On a failed save, the creature is restrained as long as it remains in the webs or until it breaks free. A creature restrained by the webs can use its action to make a Strength check against your spell save DC.
If it succeeds, it is no longer restrained. The webs are lammable. Any 5-foot cube of webs exposed to ire burns away in 1 round, dealing 2d4 ire damage to any creature that starts its turn in the ire.
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A4 portrait 9 cards on page. Acid Splash casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S duration Instantaneous You hurl a bubble of acid.
Aid casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V, S, M duration 8 hours a tiny strip of white cloth Your spell bolsters your allies with toughness and resolve.
Arcane Eye casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V, S, M duration Concentration a bit of bat fur up to 1 hour You create an invisible, magical eye within range that hovers in the air for the duration.
Arcane Lock casting time 1 action range Touch components V, S, M duration Until dispelled gold dust worth at least 25 gp, which the spell consumes You touch a closed door, window, gate, chest, or other entryway, and it becomes locked for the duration.
Augury casting time 1 minute range Self components V, S, M duration Instantaneous specially marked sticks, bones, or similar tokens worth at least 25 gp By casting gem-inlaid sticks, rolling dragon bones, laying out ornate cards, or employing some other divining tool, you receive an omen from an otherworldly entity about the results of a speciic course of action that you plan to take within the next 30 minutes.
Beacon of Hope casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V, S duration Concentration up to 1 minute This spell bestows hope and vitality.
Blade Barrier casting time 1 action range 90 feet components V, S duration Concentration up to 10 minutes You create a vertical wall of whirling, razor-sharp blades made of magical energy.
Bless casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V, S, M duration Concentration up to 1 minute a sprinkling of holy water You bless up to three creatures of your choice within range.
Blur casting time 1 action range Self components V duration Concentration up to 1 minute Your body becomes blurred, shifting and wavering to all who can see you.
Burning Hands casting time 1 action range Self foot cone components V, S duration Instantaneous As you hold your hands with thumbs touching and ingers spread, a thin sheet of lames shoots forth from your outstretched ingertips.
Chain Lightning casting time 1 action range feet components V, S, M duration Instantaneous a bit of fur. Charm Person casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V, S duration 1 hour You attempt to charm a humanoid you can see within range.
Commune casting time 1 minute range Self components V, S, M duration 1 minute incense and a vial of holy or unholy water You contact your deity or a divine proxy and ask up to three questions that can be answered with a yes or no.
Comprehend Languages casting time 1 action range Self components V, S, M duration 1 hour a pinch of soot and salt For the duration, you understand the literal meaning of any spoken language that you hear.
Cone of Cold casting time 1 action range Self foot cone components V, S, M duration Instantaneous a small crystal or glass cone A blast of cold air erupts from your hands.
Counterspell casting time 1 reaction range 60 feet components S duration Instantaneous , which you take when you see a creature within 60 feet of you casting a spell reaction, which you take when you see a creature within 60 feet of you casting a spell You attempt to interrupt a creature in the process of casting a spell.
Dancing Lights casting time 1 action range feet components V, S, M duration Concentration up to 1 minute a bit of phosphorus or wychwood, or a glowworm You create up to four torch-sized lights within range, making them appear as torches, lanterns, or glowing orbs that hover in the air for the duration.
Darkness casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, M duration Concentration up to 10 minutes bat fur and a drop of pitch or piece of coal Magical darkness spreads from a point you choose within range to ill a foot-radius sphere for the duration.
Death Ward casting time 1 action range Touch components V,S duration 8 hours You touch a creature and grant it a measure of protection from death.
Detect Magic casting time 1 action range Self components V, S duration Concentration up to 10 minutes For the duration, you sense the presence of magic within 30 feet of you.
Dimension Door casting time 1 action range feet components V duration Instantaneous You teleport yourself from your current location to any other spot within range.
Disintegrate casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S, M duration Instantaneous a lodestone and a pinch of dust A thin green ray springs from your pointing inger to a target that you can see within range.
Dispel Magic casting time 1 action range feet components V, S duration Instantaneous Choose one creature, object, or magical efect within range.
Faerie Fire casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V duration Concentration up to 1 minute Each object in a foot cube within range is outlined in blue, green, or violet light your choice.
Finger of Death casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S duration Instantaneous You send negative energy coursing through a creature that you can see within range, causing it searing pain.
Fireball casting time 1 action range feet components V, S, M duration Instantaneous a tiny ball of bat guano and sulfur A bright streak lashes from your pointing inger to a point you choose within range and then blossoms with a low roar into an explosion of lame.
Fire Bolt casting time 1 action range feet components V, S duration Instantaneous You hurl a mote of ire at a creature or object within range.
Fire Storm casting time 1 action range feet components V, S duration Instantaneous A storm made up of sheets of roaring lame appears in a location you choose within range.
Flame Strike casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S, M duration Instantaneous pinch of sulfur A vertical column of divine ire roars down from the heavens in a location you specify.
Flaming Sphere casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S, M duration Concentration a bit of tallow, a pinch of brimstone, and a dusting of powdered iron up to 1 minute A 5-foot-diameter sphere of ire appears in an unoccupied space of your choice within range and lasts for the duration.
Fly casting time 1 action range Touch components V, S, M duration Concentration a wing feather from any bird up to 10 minutes You touch a willing creature.
Foresight casting time 1 minute range Touch components V, S, M duration 8 hours a hummingbird feather You touch a willing creature and bestow a limited ability to see into the immediate future.
Freedom of Movement casting time 1 action range Touch components V, S, M duration 1 hour a leather strap, bound around the arm or a similar appendage You touch a willing creature.
Globe of Invulnerability casting time 1 action range Self foot radius components V, S, M duration Concentration a glass or crystal bead that shatters when the spell ends up to 1 minute An immobile, faintly shimmering barrier springs into existence in a foot radius around you and remains for the duration.
Greater Invisibility casting time 1 action range Touch components V,S duration Concentration up to 1 minute You or a creature you touch becomes invisible until the spell ends.
Greater Restoration casting time 1 action range Touch components V, S, M duration Instantaneous diamond dust worth at least gp, which the spell consumes You imbue a creature you touch with positive energy to undo a debilitating efect.
Guardian of Faith casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V duration 8 hours A Large spectral guardian appears and hovers for the duration in an unoccupied space of your choice that you can see within range.
Guidance casting time 1 action range Touch components V,S duration Concentration up to 1 minute You touch one willing creature. Guiding Bolt casting time 1 action range feet components V, S duration 1 round A lash of light streaks toward a creature of your choice within range.
Harm casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S duration Instantaneous You unleash a virulent disease on a creature that you can see within range.
Haste casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V, S, M duration Concentration a shaving of licorice root up to 1 minute Choose a willing creature that you can see within range.
Heal casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S duration Instantaneous Choose a creature that you can see within range.
Hold Person casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S, M duration Concentration a small, straight piece of iron up to 1 minute Choose a humanoid that you can see within range.
Ice Storm casting time 1 action range feet components V, S, M duration Instantaneous a pinch of dust and a few drops of water A hail of rock-hard ice pounds to the ground in a foot-radius, foot-high cylinder centered on a point within range.
Identify casting time 1 minute range Touch components V, S, M duration Instantaneous a pearl worth at least gp and an owl feather You choose one object that you must touch throughout the casting of the spell.
Inflict Wounds casting time 1 action range Touch components V,S duration Instantaneous Make a melee spell attack against a creature you can reach.
Invisibility casting time 1 action range Touch components V, S, M duration Concentration an eyelash encased in gum arabic up to 1 hour A creature you touch becomes invisible until the spell ends.
Knock casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V duration Instantaneous Choose an object that you can see within range.
Lesser Restoration casting time 1 action range Touch components V,S duration Instantaneous You touch a creature and can end either one disease or one condition alicting it.
Levitate casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S, M duration Concentration either a small leather loop or a piece of golden wire bent into a cup shape with a long shank on one end up to 10 minutes One creature or object of your choice that you can see within range rises vertically, up to 20 feet, and remains suspended there for the duration.
Light casting time 1 action range Touch components V, M duration 1 hour a irely or phosphorescent moss You touch one object that is no larger than 10 feet in any dimension.
Lightning Bolt casting time 1 action range Self foot line components V, S, M duration Instantaneous a bit of fur and a rod of amber, crystal, or glass A stroke of lightning forming a line feet long and 5 feet wide blasts out from you in a direction you choose.
Locate Creature casting time 1 action range Self components V, S, M duration Concentration a bit of fur from a bloodhound up to 1 hour Describe or name a creature that is familiar to you.
Mage Hand casting time 1 action range 30 feet components V, S duration 1 minute A spectral, loating hand appears at a point you choose within range.
Magic Missile casting time 1 action range feet components V, S duration Instantaneous You create three glowing darts of magical force.
Magic Weapon casting time 1 bonus action range Touch components V, S duration Concentration up to 1 hour You touch a nonmagical weapon.
Mass Cure Wounds casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S duration Instantaneous A wave of healing energy washes out from a point of your choice within range.
Mass Heal casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S duration Instantaneous A lood of healing energy lows from you into injured creatures around you.
Maze casting time 1 action range 60 feet components V, S duration Concentration up to 10 minutes You banish a creature that you can see within range into a labyrinthine demiplane.
Meteor Swarm casting time 1 action range 1 mile components V, S duration Instantaneous Blazing orbs of ire plummet to the ground at four diferent points you can see within range.